Frequently Asked Questions

RGB vs. CMYK - Which colour setting should I use?

RGB (Red, Green, and Blue) colour is the colour on your monitor, NOT the colour used for printing.

To make any image suitable for printing it MUST be first converted to CMYK (Cyan, Magenta, Yellow, and blacK) colour.

The reason for this is because RGB colour is based on radiant light i.e. light coming from a light source and hitting your eyes; while CMYK colour is based on reflected light, i.e. light coming from an RGB source (such as the sun or a ceiling light), and reflecting off a surface and having certain frequencies cancelled out, producing CMYK colour.

Printers must use CMYK inks (and hence CMYK files) so that they can get the printed piece to reflect the right kind of RGB light which then hits your eyes to let you see the right colours.

Pantone (or "spot") Colours - What are they?

Pantone colours are specialised ink colours not used in CMYK printing.

They can be selected on your machine if you have the proper palettes installed, but you cannot use them on the same page as a CMYK image (unless you want to pay extra printing fees…).

Essentially pantone colours are used when you want a colour image, but only need one or two colours and do not want to have the expense and effort of making a four colour piece. They can also be used to accent greyscale projects at little additional cost.

Pantone colours should never be printed at the same screen angle as black. If you are using the pantone colour in a duotone or as a screen overprinting black, the two colours dot pattern will print in the exact same area, producing an effect that is remarkably similar to mud.

Photoshop and Image file formats - Which one should I use?

Image file formats come in as many styles as there are image-processing programs. And if you are on a PC the options can be truly nightmarish, (.pcx, .gif, .tif, .jpg, .bmp). However, for the purposes of printing, it comes down to acceptable formats for output. Any images you send to us must be in either .jpg or .bmp format.

Anything else has a very remote chance of being output correctly, and we may refuse the file, OR, convert it to something that IS usable and then charge you for the service.

NOTE: No images from the web are EVER suitable for printing, all images on the web are either RGB colour or Indexed colour, both unacceptable and are ALWAYS of very poor resolution (i.e. 72 dpi – optimal dpi for printing is 300 dpi).

Output file formats - What formats are acceptable?

There are three standard programs for layout and printing in the design and prepress world. These are; Corel Draw, Adobe InDesign and QuarkXpress.

Any file you make should use one of these three major programs in order to be properly output. If you do not have one of these three programs, then there are options. Most bureaus will accept foreign files (i.e. Files coming from programs that are not one of the “big three”) that have been converted to either postscript or EPS (.eps) formats.

What this means is that instead of giving the file “as is” to us we must first print it to a downloadable file that can then be dumped directly into the outside bureau’s image setters.

For more information on how to make .eps files, please see your program manual. We will be posting a short “how to” here soon.

Other notes – Word processing programs are not, and will not be, suitable for final output. They do not provide cropping or registration marks, and cannot handle colour separation at all. Do not even try it!

Supplying Fonts with Your job - Should I include the fonts I have used?

All fonts used in your document MUST accompany that document when it is submitted to Coburg Printworks.

Most prepress houses will have an extensive library of fonts, but they may not be the same as the fonts YOU use, or they may be of a slightly different format from the ones you use, and as such will cause reflow of your text; not a good thing. In addition, while some fonts are very popular right now (such as Mason, Remedy, Exocet, and Abaddon) there is a better than average chance that your prepress house will NOT have them.

Not having the right fonts handy, or not having them supplied by YOU is a job-stopper that will ALWAYS be charged to you. So do not do it, include all the fonts always.

Postscripts vs. Truetype Fonts - Which font should I use?

There is only one thing you need to know when considering postscript fonts vs. truetype fonts, and that is…DO NOT USE TRUETYPE FONTS!

Postscript fonts have a special part of them that is designed to be read by image setters and high end printers that tells the image setter and/or printer EXACTLY how the font is supposed to look.

Truetype fonts on the other hand are designed to be printed on screens and laser printers, not image setters. Hence with a postscript font you ALWAYS know what is coming out when you print it.

PC Fonts - Which font should I use?

Same as Postscript vs. Truetype fonts above but even more so. Truetype fonts on the PC have the annoying habit of converting themselves to other fonts at the drop of a hat.

If you MUST use Truetype fonts in your PC document then make sure that when you are done with the file you either have all the Truetype fonts converted to outlines or know the EXACT postscript equivalent and are willing to sit through several proofs before the final output.

Supplying Artwork

Supported software

At Coburg Printworks we support most industry standard programs such as:

  • CorelDraw
  • QuarkXpress
  • Indesign
  • PageMaker
  • Illustrator
  • Photoshop
  • Freehand
  • as well as PDF’s created to our specifications
Supported media

We can read different forms of media, such as:

  • Zip disks (100Mb/250Mb)
  • CD-Rom
  • Floppy disks
  • DVD’s
  • Memory cards/flash drives

We will also accept emailable files (up to 2Mb)

Supplying logos and images

Avoid using logos and images sourced from web pages as these will lead to poor results.

Best results are achieved if logos are sourced from original designers and images from professional photographers.

  1. Files should ideally be constructed in a page layout program such as Corel Draw, QuarkXpress, or InDesign.
  2. Include all image files used.
  3. List/supply fonts used.
  4. Provide colour or black and white laser prints.
  5. Supply all mock-ups on CD-Rom or Zip disk.
Using a page layout program

For QuarkXpress, colour picture box backgrounds should be white when importing images (except for .eps).

Use Black as a colour instead of Registration (unless you want every colour printed).

Do not impose pages, we have the software to do so.

Do not draw in crop marks when the application can generate them for you, and keep the document page setup at the size of the final print.

Keep the resolution of images at optimum size. i.e. Approximately 300ppi when at 100% and crop unused areas of the image to keep file size manageable.

Do not apply trapping to the layout document or to vector images (e.g. Illustrator) unless you supply separation printouts indicating where the trap has been applied.

If you are on a PC platform, ensure that file names are no longer than 36 characters.

Avoid using “Hairline” to specify line weight, it is better to use an exact value. e.g. 0.3pt.

Ensure that at least a 5mm bleed is applied where required.

Avoid using function keys as hotkeys for style sheets etc… (more than likely they are used by the program.)

Paper Sizes

There is a standardised system of related sheet sizes, based on a series of two different sizes called A or B – all of the same proportions.

All sizes have the rectangular of 1:sqrt2 which is mathematically unique – no other size allows paper to be cut or folded in half and yet retain the same proportion.

It is also not neccessary to give dimensions of paper, as descriptions such as A4 or A3 are in universal use.

A series B series International Envelope Sizes
Type Size (mm) Type Size (mm) Type Size (mm)
A0 1189 x 841 B0 1414 x 1000 DL 110 x 220
A1 841 x 594 B1 1000 x 707 B6 125 x 176
A2 594 x 420 B2 707 x 500 B6/C4 125 x 324
A3 420 x 297 B3 500 x 353 B5 176 x 250
A4 297 x 210 B4 353 x 250 B4 250 x 353
A5 210 x 148 B5 250 x 176 C6 114 x 162
A6 148 x 105 B6 176 x 125 C5 162 x 229
A7 105 x 74 B7 125 x 88 C4 229 x 324
A8 74 x 52 B8 88 x 62 C3 324 x 458
A9 52 x 37 B9 62 x 44
A10 37 x 26 B10 44 x 31

Envelope Sizes

There is a standardised system of relative envelope sizes based on the A series of paper sizes. Also available is a range of imprint size envelopes which are pre metric sizes.


Symbol Index

Acid Free

Acid Free

No free acids are present due to care taken in the manufacturing of the pulp to eliminate any active acid. Only uses alkaline additives. Acid free papers are used for wrapping or storing jewellery, china, silver or photographs.
Australian Made

Australian Made

Stocks that display this symbol are manufactured in Australia.
Elemental Chlorine Free (ECF)

Elemental Chlorine Free (ECF)

No chlorine gases are used in the bleaching process.
The ECF process uses chlorine dioxide – when the bleaching process is complete, the chlorine atom leaves the process as chloride or salt.

* There is no toxological difference between waste waters generated from ECF or TCF based bleaching.



We stock a large selection of coordinated envelopes for that special job.
Specialty envelopes are available in DL 110 x 220mm.
Please call for other sizes or refer to specialty envelope section of price book.
ISO 9706 Long Life

ISO 9706 Long Life

Papers displaying this symbol are guaranteed by international standards to last up to 100 years.
Laser Compatible

Laser Compatible

Compatible for use in laser printers, subject to manufacturer’s guidance on grammage and use.
Laser Guaranteed

Laser Guaranteed

Guaranteed for use in laser printers, subject to manufacturer’s guidance on grammage and use.
Normal Inks

Normal Inks

Traditional offset inks may be used instead of quick drying oxidising inks.


Made up of recycled fibres which have been extracted from existing paper products to be used in the manufacture of further paper products. Recycled paper can be 100% recycled or consist of a mixture of pre and post consumer waste along with some virgin fibre to add strength.
Environmental Accreditation

Environmental Accreditation

A paper mill that has internationally recognised environmental standards and an ongoing commitment to the conservation of natural resources. The paper mill has established an environmental management system with standards in excess of legal requirements that operate in tandem with their product quality controls.


Papers displaying this symbol are available in reels for customised sheeting purposes.
Sustainable Forestry Practices

Sustainable Forestry Practices

Fibre used in the production of paper that shows this symbol is sourced from pulp suppliers who practice sustainable forestry techniques and/or managed renewable plantation forests.
Totally Chlorine Free (TCF)

Totally Chlorine Free (TCF)

No chlorine gases or compunds are used in the bleaching process.


Brand names, logos and other designs are imparted on the sheet by a dandy roll in the paper making process.
Strength/Durability/Water Resistance

Strength/Durability/Water Resistance

These symbols relate to our polypropylene synthetic sheet JPP. Where strength, durability and water resistance are important. JPP Synthetic is the product to use.

Print Terminology

The following list define terms commonly used with printing.

We hope that this will help you to become more familiar with the terms that we use in the printing industry, as you discuss your project with us.


Accordion fold:

Bindery term, two or more parallel folds, which open like an accordion

Against the grain:

Perpendicular to direction of paper grain


Back up:

Printing the second side of a sheet already printed on one side


Method of packaging printed pieces of paper using rubber or paper bands

Basis weight:

Weight in pounds of a ream of paper cut to the basic size for its grade


To fasten sheets or signatures with wire, thread, glue or by other means


The finishing department of a print shop or firm specializing in finishing printed products


The thick rubber mat on a printing press that transfers ink from the plate to the paper


Printing that goes to the edge of the sheet after trimming

Blind embossing:

An image pressed into a sheet without ink or foil


Thickness of paper stock in thousandths of an inch or number of pages per inch

Bulk pack:

Boxing printed product without wrapping or banding


Exposing a printing plate to high intensity light or placing an image on a printing plate


Joining images without overlapping



Pressure sensitive writing paper without the use of carbon paper


Paper thickness in thousands of an inch

Case blind:

A type of binding used in making hard cover books using glue

Cast coated:

Coated paper with a high gloss reflective finish

Coated paper:

A clay coated printing paper with a smooth finish


A finishing term for gathering paper in a precise order

Colour bar:

A quality control term regarding the spots of ink colour on the tail of a sheet

Colour separations:

The process of preparing artwork for printing by separating into the four primary printing colours, CMYK

Comb bind:

To plastic comb bind by inserting the comb into punched holes


The tone change in colour from light to dark

Cover paper:

A heavy printing paper used to cover books, make presentation folders, etc…


To cut off parts of a picture or image

Crop marks:

Printed lines showing where to trim a printed sheet


Printing across the gutter or from one page to the facing page of a publication


One of four standard process colours



The degree of colour or darkness of an image or photograph


Metal rule or imaged block used to cut or place an image on paper in the finishing process

Die cutting:

Curing images in or out of paper


An element of halftones


A rough layout of a printed piece showing position and finished size


A halftone picture made up of two printed colours



Pressing an image into paper so that it will create a raised relief


A patented method of binding perfect bound books so they will open and lay flatter



To cover a printed page with ink, varnish or plastic coating


A metallic or pigmented coating on plastic sheets or rolls used in foil stamping and foil embossing

Foil emboss:

Foil stamping and embossing an image on paper with a die

Foil stamping:

Using a die to place a metallic or pigmented image on paper


The process of combining four basic colours to create a full colour image

French fold:

Two folds at right angles to each other



A shiny look reflecting light


The direction in which the paper fibre lie


The metal fingers on a printing press that hold the paper as it passes through the press



A very thin line or gap about the width of a hair or 1/100 inch


Converting a continuous tone to dots for printing

Hard copy:

The output of a computer printer or typed text sent for typesetting


Re-occurring unplanned spots that appear in the printed image from dust, lint, dried ink


The lightest areas in a picture or halftone


Image area:

Portion of paper on which ink can appear


Positioning printed pages so they will fold in the proper order


Adding copy to previously printed page


Postal information place on a printed product

Ink foundation:

The reservoir on a printing press that holds the ink


Kiss die cut:

To cut the top layer of a pressure sensitive sheet and not the backing



To cover with film; to bond or glue one surface to another

Lines per inch:

The number of rows of dots per inch in a halftone



Process red, one of the four basic process colours


All the activities required to prepare a press for printing

Matte finish:

Dull paper or ink finish


Occurs when screen angles are wrong causing odd patterns in tone



The image on film that makes the white areas of originals black and black areas white


Offset paper:

Term for uncoated book paper


The amoount of “showing-through” on a printed sheet

Over-run or overs:

Copies printed in excess of the specified quantity (Printing trade terms allow for + – 10% to represent a completed order)


Page count:

Total number of pages in a book including blanks

Pattern carbon:

Special carbon paper used in business forms that only transfers in certain areas

Perfect bind:

A type of binding that glues the edge of sheets to a cover (e.g. Telephone book)

Perfecting press:

A sheet fed printing press that prints both sides of a sheet in one pass


Unit of measure in typesetting. One pica = 1/6 inch

Plate gap:

Gripper space. The area where the grippers hold the sheet as it passes through the press


The abbreviated name of the Pantone Colour Matching System


(PT) For paper, a unit of thickness = 1/1000 inch. For typesetting, a unit of height = 1/72 inch

Post Script:

(PS) The computer language most recognised by printing devices

Process colours:

(CMYK) Cyan, Magenta, Yellow, and Black. These 4 colours make 16 million when combined in 4 colour printing



Five hundred sheets of paper


Right-hand of an open book


To position print in the proper position in relation to the edge of the sheet and to other printing on the same sheet

Register marks:

Cross-hair lines or marks on film, plates and paper that guide strippers, plate makers, pressmen and bindery personnel in processing an order


Saddle stitch:

Binding a booklet or magazine with staples in the seam where it folds


A crease put on paper to help it fold better


Using the same paper as the text for the cover


The darkest areas of a photograph


Printing on one side of a sheet that can be seen on the other side of the sheet

Side stitch:

Binding by stapling along one side of a sheet


A sheet of printed pages which when folded become a part of a book or publication


The binding edge of a book or publication


Planned paper waste for all printing operations

Spot varnish:

Varnish used to highlight a specific part of the printed sheet


Term for foil stamping


Term for inexpensive print of line copy or halftone


A proof mark meaning let the original copy stand


The material to be printed


The positioning of film on a flat prior to platemaking

Substance weight:

A term of basis weight when referring to bond paper

top of page ^



A shade of a single colour or combined colours


A positive photographic slide on film allowing light to pass through


The ability to print one ink over the other

Trim marks:

Similar to crop or register marks. These marks show where to trim the printed sheet

Trim size:

The size of a printed image after the last trim is made


UV coating:

Liquid laminate bonded and cured with ultraviolet light



A clear liquid applied to printed surfaces for looks and protection


The left side page of an open book

Vignette halftone:

A halftone gradually fades to white



A design created in paper at the time of manufacture that can be seen by holding the paper up to a light

Web press:

Large presses that print from rolls of paper (e.g. newspaper printing)

With the grain:

Feeding paper into a press or folds in paper is parallel to the grain of the paper

Work and tumble:

Printing one side of a sheet and turning it over from the gripper to the tail, utilising the same guides and plate for the reverse side

Work and turn:

Printing on one side of a sheet and turning it over from left to right, utilising the same side guides and plate for the reverse side